Bones, Muscles and Joints (Orthopaedics)
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are distinguished by pain, swelling, and limited movement injoints and connective tissues in the body.
Avascular necrosis is a disease that may cause bone or joint collapse as a result of loss of blood supply tothe bone due to injury or any other cause (such as long-term use of certain medications).
Back and Neck Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dreary, aggravating pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in thelower back that restrict mobility. Neck pain is pain that occurs in the area of the seven cervical vertebraein the neck area.
Benign Bone Tumors
There are many benign bone tumors that require medical care by a physician or other healthcareprofessional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.
There are different types of bone cancers, which are normally defined as a malignant/cancerousbecause that destroys bone tissue.
Calluses and Corns
Calluses are protective pads made up of the thickened upper layer of skin due to frequent rubbing of thearea. Corns are small calluses that develop on the top of the toes due to pressure or rubbing againstshoes or other toes.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a state in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through anopening from the wrist to the hand called the carpal tunnel.
Sometimes called Codman's tumor, a Chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor thatoriginates from cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells.
Chronic pain is long-standing pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with achronic health condition like arthritis.
Congenital Hand Deformities
Congenital anomalies are deformities that are present at the time of birth.
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in yourelbow. The "funny" bone in the elbow is actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow (theulnar nerve begins in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers).
Dupuytren's contracture, also called Dupuytren's disease generally begins with the thickening of the skinin the palm of the hand, which may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually could causethe fingers to contract or pull into the palm.
Common elbow problems include arthritis, bursitis, fractures, and injury.
An enchondroma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that occurs mainly in the bone or soft tissue.
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands due to abnormal development of fibroustissue, often resulting in inconsistent growth of bones, pain, frail bones, or bone deformity.
Foot pain is majorly caused by improper foot function. Ill fitted shoes can worsen and in some cases,cause foot problems.
A fracture is a partial or complete bone break.
Giant Cell Tumor
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a huge number of benign (non-cancerous) cells that form anaggressive tumor - usually near the end of the bone near a joint.
Head and Neck Cancer
Cancer that initiates in any part of the head or neck (except the brain or eye) is called head and neckcancer.
A hip fracture is a break in the femur (thigh bone) of the hip joint.
The following are some of the most common hip problems: arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, and hip pointer.
Many knee problems are a consequence of the aging process and continual wear and tear on the kneejoint (i.e., arthritis). Other knee problems are a result of an injury or a sudden movement that strains theknee.
A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine that is affected bykyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bone (vertebrae) in the upper back area,giving a humpback appearance.
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
Lateral epicondylitis also known as tennis elbow, is characterised by pain in the back side of the elbowand forearm, along the thumb side when the arm is alongside the body with the thumb turned away.The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
Ligament Injuries to the Knee
Ligament injuries to the knee include injuries to one of the four knee ligaments (elastic bands of tissuethat connect bones to each other).
Low Back Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lowerback. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
Lumbar Disc Disease (Herniated Disc)
Lumbar disc disease occurs in the lumbar area of the spine. As discs degenerate, fragments of the discmaterial can press on the nerve roots located just behind the disc space causing pain, numbness orchanges in sensation.
Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasmand feel sore.
Medial Epicondylitis (Golfers and Baseball Elbow)
Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tenniselbow, is characterised by pain from the elbow to the wrist on the palm side of the forearm.
Myeloma Bone Disease / Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain type of white blood cells.
Because of the location and range of motion of the neck, it is often left unprotected and subject to injuryand therefore pain.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilageand adjacent bone in the neck, lower back, knees, hips and/or fingers.
Also called osteocartilaginous exostoses, osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone nearthe end of the bone near the growth plate.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) also known as brittle-bone disease is a genetic disorder characterised bybones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.
Osteoporosis or porous bone is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bonetissue, causing weakening of the bones in the hips, spine and wrists.
Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer coveringof bone.
Paget's Disease of the Bone
Paget's disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and deformed.Bone may become dense, but fragile, because of excessive breakdown and deformation of bone.
Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)
Patellar tendonitis also known as jumper’s knee is a condition caused by inflammation of the tendonconnecting the kneecap to the shin bone often caused by overuse of the knee joint.
Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome (Runner's Knee)
Patellofemoral stress syndrome is a condition common among runners involving knee pain caused byirritation of the cartilage of the kneecap.
Two of the more common pelvic problems include pelvic fractures and osteitis pubis.
Repetitive Motion Injury
Repetitive motion injuries, also called repetitive stress injuries are temporary or permanent injuries tomuscles, nerves, ligaments and tendons caused by performing the same motion over and over again.
Rotator Cuff Injury
An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched handor develop over time due to repetitive activities.
Sciatica also known as lumbar radiculopathy is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve whichextends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.
A spine affected by scoliosis exhibits a lateral or sideways curvature, and a rotation of the back bones(vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.
Dislocation of the shoulder means the displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) out of theshoulder joint.
Shoulder Pain and Problems
Common shoulder problems include: dislocation, separation, bursitis, impingement syndrome,tendonitis, rotator cuff tear, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) and fracture.
Tendonitis of the shoulder is an inflammation of the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon.
Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
Sprains and Strains
The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/ortendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains and strains.